Lemberg, or Lowenburg, the capital of the Austrian province of Galicia, is 180 miles E. of Cracow and 60 from the Russian frontier. It is in a hollow 1,000 feet above sea-level on a tributary of the Bug, which flows into the Vistula. The Castle Hill is 1,300 feet high. The site of the old walls is now boulevards, and the suburbs extend over 12 square miles. The Roman Catholics, Greek Catholics, and the Armenians have cathedrals, and there is a Dominican church containing a monument by Thorwaldsen. Besides a university, there is a fine library and good scientific and antiquarian collections. The inhabitants are Poles, Germans, and Ruthenians. Among the productions are flour, beer, vinegar, oil of roses, matches, machinery, and earthenware. Lemberg has often been besieged.