Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent (1743-94), one of the founders of the modern theory of chemistry, was born in Paris of a wealthy family. An essay on the best way of lighting Paris brought him into notice, and in 1768 he became an Academician. In 1769 he was appointed Farmer-General, and in 1776 he introduced improvements in 'the mode of making gunpowder. In 1769 he was made commissary of the Treasury. Besides establishinga new theory as to the nature of oxygen, he applied the principles of chemistry to agriculture, and made valuable researches in geology and kindred subjects. Among his works are an Elementary Treatise on Chemistry, and a work On the Territorial Riches of France. His services did not prevent his being guillotined.