Krupp, Alfred (1812-87), the founder of the immense iron and steel works at Essen (q.v.). He was born at Essen, where his father had set up a small ironfoundry in 1810. He succeeded his father in 1848, the foundry then being still small and in a languishing condition. The discovery of the Bessemer process of converting steel and the invention of the Nasmyth hammer gave a great impetus to the demand for large forgings, and Krupp took full advantage of this demand, and started the first Bessemer works and the first steam hammer in Germany, and was, moreover, the first to introduce the manufacture of steel guns, going on till he finally sent out guns of 100 tons and upwards, the first 100-ton gun being produced in 1880. He had already cast a steel block of 20 tons in 1862, and ten years later he cast one of 52 tons. The works at Essen are on a gigantic scale, employing a small army of workmen, and are still increasing under the management of the son of the above, who built a 135-ton gun for the fort of Cronstadt.