Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Kossuth, Louis, the Hungarian patriot, was born in 1806. In 1832 he began his political career as a proxy in the Pressburg parliament. He soon embroiled himself with the authorities by publishing a manuscript journal in which the debates were reported, and was imprisoned for refusing to discontinue it. In 1841 he began to edit the Pesth Journal, and three years later formed a National League, which was really, though not ostensibly, directed against Austria. In 1847 he was elected member for Pesth, and in 184S moved the establish ment of a responsible Hungarian Ministry. This was granted after a deputation had waited upon the emperor, and Kossuth became Finance Minister. All classes were now to pay taxes and to be equal before the civil authority, the franchise was extended, feudal privileges were given up, and the land system reformed. The Austrian Government now, however, took advantage of the Croat insurrection to revoke the grant of constitutional rights, and when the insurgents had been defeated, Kossuth determined to support the Viennese movement which had followed the third French Revolution. The Magyars were defeated, but the Hungarians refused to recognise the new Austrian emperor, Francis Joseph. They were at first successful, but dissensions broke out amongst the leaders, and in October, 1849, Kossuth resigned his dictatorship to his rival Gorgey, and took refuge in Turkey. Two years later he came to England, and afterwards went to the United States, giving lectures advocating the Hungarian cause. After his return he passed many years in England, but after 1867 lived a retired life at Turin. Kossuth not only refused to accept the settlement of 1867, but even lost his rights as a Hungarian citizen in 1890, as he had neglected to take the steps necessary to secure them which were prescribed by the Act of 1879. Occasionally, however, of late years he has used his influence to check division in the Nationalist party in Hungary (e.g. in 1893). He published two series of Memoirs of my Exile, and did a good -deal of miscellaneous writing while in England. [Gorgey, Hungary.]