Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Kars, the capital of a district ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), is situated on a tributary of the Arar about 110 miles N.E. of Erzerum. It stands in a very strong position 6,000 feet above the sea-level, and, as an important fortress, was for a long time a bone of contention between Russia and Turkey. In 1828 it was captured from the Turks by Paskevitch; in 1855 it stood a siege of six months under General Williams, an account of which has been written by Laurence Oliphant; finally, it was taken by storm by General Lazareff in November, 1877, after having been for some months the centre of operations.