Kara-Kalpaks, i.e. "Black Caps," a Turki people of Khiva and Bokhara, in speech and customs similar to the Kirghiz and in features intermediate between the Kirghiz Kazzaks and the Uzbeks; large head, flat full face, large eyes, flat nose, pointed chin, stout thick beard, the largest and strongest race in Central Asia. Formerly nomads, are now partly settled, and engaged chiefly in cattle-breeding. Chief tribes: Baymakle, Khandekli, Achamayli, Kaychili, Kitai, Ingakli, Kenedoz, Shaku, Tomboyun, Ontonturuk, about half a million altogether. The Kara-Kalpaks settled in the 12th century in the Kief district. South Russia; are now absorbed in the surrounding Little Russian populations.