Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Kalkas (Khalkas), a main branch of the eastern Mongolians, stretching along the northern fringe of the Gobi Desert from Manchuria to Zungaria; are typical Mongols, with broad flat face, high cheek-bones, wide nostrils, small narrow eyes, large ears, coarse black and lank hair, scanty beard, dirty yellow sunburnt complexion, stout thick-set figure rather above the average height; speech differs considerably from that current amongst the southern Mongols. All are Buddhists subject to China since 1691. They comprise four aimaks (principalities) and 86 koshungs (banners), each under a hereditary khan (prince), who is responsible to the Pekin Government for the taxes and the maintenance of order; population 400,000 to 500,000. all tent-dwellers, shifting their camping-grounds with the seasons.