Joule, James Prescott (1818-89), the elecrician, was born at Salford. He studied under lalton the chemist at the Manchester Philosophical ociety, and very soon began to devote his time to hemical and physical research. He filled sucessively the offices of library secretary and resident of the Manchester Society, was elected '.R.S. in 1850, and received the Copley Medal in 860. In 1878 he was granted a civil list pension of £200, and in 1880 was presented with the Albert ledal of the Society of Arts, and he also received onorary degrees from Oxford, Dublin, and Edinurgh. His first discovery was connected with the reduction of heat by voltaic electricity, his second iss the equivalence of heat and energy, and he Iso made various experiments in magnetism. His taper appeared under the auspices of the Physical ociety, but edited by himself.