Josephus, Flavius, the Jewish historian, was born at Jerusalem in the year 37. The facts of his life rest upon his autobiography. From this we learn that he was of good family, and he was remarkable for his learning from early youth; that after living three years in the desert he became a, Pharisee; that in the year 63 he went to Rome, where, through the intercession of Poppaea, he obtained the release of some Jewish priests; and that, on his return three years later, he took the command of the Jews when Galilee rose against the Romans. He held out in Jotapata for nearly fifty days, and then surrendered. His life was spared, but he was kept in chains for three years. He gained the favour of both Vespasian and Titus, and urged the Jews to surrender to the latter. After the fall of Jerusalem he lived as a Roman pensioner till about 103, when he died. He had played a double part, and was trusted neither by the Romans nor by his own countrymen. His -Jewish War, originally written in Aramaic, but translated by the author into Greek, is a vivid narration of Jewish affairs from the time of the Maccabees to the year 73. It is generally accurate, but was written with an eye to his patrons, being submitted to Vespasian, Titus, and Agrippa. His chief other work was Antiquitiesof the Jews, aieained but unequal account of the early history of his nation, based mainly on the Septuagint, the first book of Maccabees, Strabo. and Nicolaus of' Damascus.