Japanning. The term japanning is applied to a mode of lacquering articles which is extensively practised in Japan, as in the formation of the wellknown Japanese papier-miiche tea-trays, etc. For such articles a lacquer obtained from certain Japanese trees is employed, being laid on in successive coats and each thoroughly dried in the sun before the application of the next, until finally a thick, hard, glossy coating is obtained. Different designs may be painted on the article in gold or colours before the application of the final layers. For the japanning of metals the article must be first well cleaned, smoothed, and dried, and is then coated with a layer of lacquer or japan. Each layer is dried by placing the metal in an oven kept at a constant temperature, the regulation of the heat being an important point in the operation. Another layer is then given and again dried, etc., each coating giving a better surface than the previous one, and, if desired, the final layer may be subjected to artificial poliuhing. Japans of various colours may be employed, formed by mixing pigments of the desired shade with varnish. The latter usually consists of shellac, or a mixture of shellac and resin dissolved in methylated spirits, while as pigments, ivory black, lamp black, white lead, king's-yellow, etc., may be used. In lacquering wood, papier-mache, plaster, etc., articles, other varnishes specially adapted for the particular purpose are employed, and the articles are dried without making use of the ovens employed for metal work.