Hongkong, an island in the south of China, which became a British possession in 1842, in accordance with the Treaty of Nanking. It is about 90 miles S. by E. of Canton, and has an area of 29 square miles, consisting for the most part of barren and desolate rocks, which rise in a precipitous ridge to a height of 1,800 feet. The direction in which it lies is from N.W. to S.E., and between it and the mainland the Straits of Ly-u-mun expand into a magnificent harbour, extending over ten square miles. Opposite the eastern extremity of the island is the peninsula of Kowloon, the southern portion of which is now included in the colony. Hongkong is the chief mart in the south of China, and one of the most important commercial towns in Eastern Asia. The principal import is opium, the chief exports tea and silk. There is also a considerable trade in cotton, sugar, flour, rice, woollens, earthenware, etc. The manufactures include sugar, rum, ropes, and shipping stores. The mean annual temperature is 75° F., and during the greater part of the year the climate is tolerably healthy. The government is carried on by a governor appointed by the Crown, in conjunction, with an Executive and a Legislative Council. The island is one of the stations of Her Majesty's fleet. Victoria, the capital, is picturesquely situated on the north side of the island on the hills overlooking the harbour.