Hierapolis, a name given by the Greeks to many cities, of which the most important were :
1. Hierapolis in Syria Cyrrhestica, 16 miles from the junction of the Euphrates and the Sajur, and not far from Carchemish, with which it seems to have been confounded by early writers. Its first name was Bambyg, Mambug, or Mambe (in Greek Bambyke). We know nothing certain of the city's history until the Seleucid dynasty, when as Bambyce it grew populous and wealthy, deriving its appellation Hierapolis from the worship of the Syrian goddess Atargatis (Gr. "Derceto"). Crassus plundered it in 53 B.C., and under the emperors up to the time of Julian it was a strong and prosperous community. It then declined, and, though restored by Haroun-al-Raschid, it never recovered its former greatness. As Bayuk Mambedj, or Kara Bambuche, the ruins still exist, and have been carefully surveyed by modern explorers.
2. Hierapolis in Phrygia, at the confluence of the Lycus and the Meander, was celebrated in antiquity for its hot springs, used for dyeing as well as bathing and drinking. Epictetus was born here, and St. Paul (Coloss. iv. 13) founded a church. Kalessi Pambuk, or "Cotton Castle," is the Turkish designation of the locality, which preserves many perfect specimens of Greek architecture.