Hertfordshire, an inland county, having Cambridge on the north, Middlesex on the south, Essex on the east, and Bedford and Bucks on the west. It is 38 miles long from S.W. to N.E., by a width of 20 miles, and contains 405,000 acres, of which 350,000 are arable, meadow, or pasture. The surface consists of hill and valley, the chalk hills of the north rising to a height of 900 feet, and there is much wood, and abundance of parks and seats. The climate is agreeable. The soil is for the most part loam and clay, but the centre is in places gravelly. Most of the cultivated land is arable, the chief crops being good wheat and barley, oats, turnips, and grasses: and the meadows produce good hay. In the S.W. there are cherry and apple orchards. There is not much live stock, and the sheep are mostly of Southdown and Wiltshire breeds. The chief industries are malting, paper-making, straw-plaiting, and ribbon-weaving. There are four parliamentary divisions, returning one member each. The four northern railways provide railway accommodation for the county.