Herbart, Johann Friedrich (1776-1841), a German philosopher whose views are formed partly on the system of Kant and partly on that of Fichte, although his great work was to oppose the doctrine of the idealists as inaugurated by Kant and carried on by Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. His position in philosophy is chiefly that of a critic of other systems, and the first part of his labours was an analysis of the doctrines of Spinoza, Leibnitz, and Kant, and a comparison of them with those of Fichte, Fries, and Schelling. One of his special peculiarities is an endeavour to apply mathematical and mathematico-physical principles to psychology. He produced many works. Among them are an Introduction to Philosophy, Manual of Psychology, and works on logic and metaphysics. He is of some importance also in the science of education.