Herat, a city of North-West Afghanistan, situate in a plain on the river Heri-Rud, 370 miles west of Cabul. It is defended by a citadel, mound, wall of sun-baked brick, and a ditch fed by water from neighbouring springs and from the river. There are several gates with streets of bazaars leading from them to a central square. Among the public buildings are mosques, caravanserais, and baths. The chief industries are the manufacture of carpets and sword blades, both considerable, and of shoes, cloaks, and lambskin .caps. The trade is great, since the town is on the high road between India and Persia; moreover, it is of considerable importance in times of war. The chief objects of trade, which is carried on mostly by Hindus, are assafcetida, caraway seeds, dye, gum, manna, mastic, pistachio nuts, and saffron. There is also a through trade in shawls, indigo, sugar, chintz, leather, muslin, and skins. Herat was once the capital of Tamerlane's empire, and the ruins in the neighbourhood are numerous.