Hall-marks, or Plate-marks, embossed symbols stamped on articles of gold and silver to show the quality of the material. The name is derived from the Hall of the Goldsmiths' Company, to whom the regulation of the process was entrusted. The symbols are the following: (1) The standard mark; this, consists of a crown and the figure 22 for English gold of 22 carats, a crown and the figure 18 for gold of 18 carats, etc. (2) The mark of the assay town - a leopard's head for London, an anchor for Birmingham, etc. (3) A mark showing that duty has been paid - the head of the ruling sovereign. (4) The date mark - a letter of the alphabet, which changes each year. (5) The maker's mark - consisting usually of the initials of his Christian name and surname. To these (6) the workman's mark is sometimes added.