Halifax. 1. A town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 43 miles S.W. of York. Its name is variously said to mean "holy ways" and "holy face." The parish church (St. John's), in the Perpendicular Gothic style, was restored in 1879. All Souls' church was designed by Sir Gilbert Scott. There are. forty Nonconformist places of worship. The Piece Hall, originally used as a storehouse and place of sale for manufactured goods, is now used as a market hall. The People's Park was laid out from designs by Paxton, and was given to the town by Sir F. Crossley, who, with his brother also in great part, defrayed the cost of building the orphan home and school. It was endowed largely by Mr. J. Porter. Besides its buildings and its waterworks, Halifax has a flourishing Co-operative Society known as the Halifax Industrial. The carpet-works, employing more than 5,000 hands, are the largest in the world, and the manufacture of worsted and cotton stuffs is also carried on. The borough returns two members to Parliament.
2. The chief town of Nova Scotia, is situated on the eastern coast of that peninsula. Its harbour, capable of holding the whole British navy, is one of the finest, in the world, and was called by the Indians Chebucto, "greatest of havens." The dockyard is also one of the finest in British North America. The graving-dock, which will hold the largest ship afloat, and is the largest in America, was constructed between 1880 and 1889, The history of Halifax does not go back farther than the middle of the 18th century. It was founded in 1749, and called after the English nobleman who had been most zealous in its protection against French projects. It was so strongly fortified as to be deemed impregnable, and soon became the most important naval and military station in British North America. Its commercial importance, however, dates only from the period following the last French war. It is now the eastern terminus of the Canadian Pacific and Inter-Colonial railways, and is an important coaling station and starting-place for lines of steamers. Its streets are lighted by electricity, and the sanitary arrangements are perfect. The public schools are free, and to some extent compulsory. The Dal- ' housie University supplies advanced education. Among other educational institutions, Halifax has schools for the blind and the deaf and dumb. Dartmouth is a suburb on the opposite side of the harbour.