Hales, Stephen (1677-1761), physiologist, was born at Bekesbourne, Kent. He became fellow of Corpus Christi, Cambridge, in 1703, and afterwards held livings in Somersetshire and Hampshire (Farringdon). In 1718 he, was elected F.R.S., and received the Copley medal in 1737. He was one of the founders of what was later called the Society of Arts. He lived chiefly at Teddington, of which he was perpetual curate. In 1751 he became chaplain to Prince George (afterward George III.) and clerk of the closet to his mother, who raised a monument to him in Westminster Abbey. Hales's most important work, Statistical Essays, deals with botany and physiology, in which he first opened the way to a correct appreciation of blood-pressure. His best-known invention was that of artificial ventilators; but he also contrived machines for distilling sea-water and for the keeping of meat and water during sea-voyages. His pamphlet against brandy-drinking was republished in 1807.