Hague, The (S' Gravenhage, "the Count's Hedge"), the capital of South Holland and seat of the Dutch government, is on a branch of the Leyden and Rotterdam canal, 15 miles N.N.W. of the latter town, and 33 miles S.W. of Amsterdam. Originally a hunting lodge of the Counts of Holland, it became in 1584 the meeting-place both of the States of Holland and the States-General, as well as the residence of the Stadtholders. In the next two centuries it was also an important diplomatic centre. The city is beautiful in appearance, the canals, shaded by rows of linden-trees, having a picturesque effect. The picture-gallery contains a valuable collection. There is also a museum in which are many Chinese and Japanese curiosities; a royal library, containing 4,000 MSS.; a large collection of books and coins; and many churches, the chief of which is St. James's, a Gothic building of the 14th century. In the Meermanno-Westreenen museum is a collection of early printed books. To the north of the city in the Bosch, or Park, stands a royal palace, to which is attached the Orange Hall. The Hague is connected by tramways with Scheveningen, a fashionable watering-place on the North Sea. Cannon-founding, copper- and lead-smelting, printing, and carriage-making are among the chief industries. Several learned societies have their headquarters in the city, which is adorned by statues of Spinoza, Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, and several princes of the House of Orange.