Haematemesis (from two Greek words signifying vomiting of blood). This term, as its etymology signifies, is applied to the act of bringing up blood from the cavity of the stomach. It is by no means so simple a matter as might at first sight appear to distinguish the source of blood brought up through the mouth, and haemoptysis (q.v.) and haematemesis are not infrequently confused the one with the other. Blood brought up from the stomach has not usually the bright red colour possessed by that which comes from the lungs, nor is it so intimately mixed with the expectorated mucus. If blood remains in the stomach for a sufficient length of time to enable the digestive juices to act freely upon it, it acquires the appearance of coffee grounds. Haematemesis may be due to gastric ulcer, or to cancer of the stomach. It is also common in association with the congested state of the gastric mucous membrane which exists in cirrhosis of the liver.