Galloway, a district in the S.W. of Scotland, now almost coextensive with Wigtonshire and Kirkcudbright, but formerly much larger. It is 70 miles long "by about 40 miles broad, and has long been famous for its breed of small horses and black cattle. The chief occupation, however, now of its inhabitants is dairy-farming, for which its mild and genial climate admirably suit it. The surface is in parts mountainous, and there are many lakes and streams. In the Roman period Agricola is thought to have made a strong settlement here, and the many Roman remains seem to confirm this view. The name is said to be derived from Gall-Gael or foreign Gaels, and, though the natives were subdued by the English in the 7th century, they preserved their language till the 16th century, and many of the local names have a Gaelic appearance.