Galicia. 1. An Austrian crown-land, having Russia to the N. and E., Hungary S.W., and on the W. Austrian and Russian Silesia. Its area is 30,000 square miles. The Carpathians occupy a third, and most of the rest is a succession of terraces descending to the plain of Russia, with some low land near the Vistula. There are two heights in the Carpathians of 6,000 and 7,000 feet respectively. Its rivers belong partly to the basin of the Baltic, partly to that of the Black Sea, the tributaries of the Vistula being in the former, and the Dniester in the latter. There are a few lakes and many morasses, and several mineral springs. The climate is severe, and much of the land is forest. There is some coal, iron, lignite, zinc, and salt, and Cracow is the seat of the iron manufacture. Corn, hemp, flax, and tobacco are grown, and horses, cattle, and bees are reared, and there is a good deal of transit trade done down the Dniester. The towns of Lemberg and Cracow have each a university. The inhabitants are chiefly Poles and Ruthenians. The Austrians first got a footing in Galicia in 1772, and it was not until 1846 that they finished acquiring it.
2. An ancient kingdom of N.W. Spain, now containing Corunna and three other provinces, is on the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic, being 125 miles long by 115 broad, and having an area of 11,222 miles. The Pyrenean chain runs through Galicia from E. to W., and two spurs branch off in a S.E. direction, enclosing the basin of the Minho. which is the chief river, and has a course of 170 miles to the Atlantic. The Minho has many tributaries, and there are other rivers, those to the N. having short, turbulent courses. The coast-line of 240 miles has many good harbours, among them being Vigo Bay, the port of Corunna, Vivero Bay, and the Rivadeo. The climate is mild, and there is much rain, rendering the land fertile. Timber, cattle, and pigs - which feed under the oaks and chestnuts - fruits, game, and fish are abundant. Lead, tin, copper, and iron pyrites are found, and there is some manufacture of linen and cotton. The chief exports are cattle, sardines, preserved meat, chestnuts, nuts, and potatoes. Most of the people are engaged in agriculture, and the native Gallego is looked on as a good-natured but thick-headed fellow.