Gaetulia, an ancient country of North Africa, of uncertain extent, but stretching probably from Mauretania and Numidia, to the basin of the Niger, and bounded on the W. by the Atlantic Ocean. The inhabitants of the region were considered by Sallust to be one of the aboriginal races, and it is possible that they were what are now Berbers, while the Melano-Gaetuli of the south showed the admixture of negro blood that is still visible. They were great rearers of horses. Our knowledge of them is derived chiefly from the Romans, with whom they came first into contact in the Jugurthine War. The name soon came to be synonymous in Rome with "Africa" and "African." They gave the Romans much trouble till they were finally subdued by Lentulus, who took the surname of Gaetulicus. The country had some renown in the Middle Ages, and it is thought that the name may still be traced.