Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Fronde, the name given to a political party in France, which, during the minority of Louis XIV., resisted the tyrannical government of the Prime Minister, Cardinal Mnzurin. Mazarin. himself an Italian, made himself odious to the nobility by the favour he showed to foreigners, especially his ngent, Emeri, to the people by his burdensome taxation, and to the Parlement of Paris by forcing them to register his financial edicts. Fronde was the name of a sling used by the urchins of Paris in their street squabbles; frondettr denoted a "grumbler" as well as a "slinger," and it was perhaps in this sense that, the name was adopted by the leader of the party, Paul de Goudi, Cardinal de Retz. Mazarin having in 1648 arrested certain members of the Parlement, who had caused the downfall of Emeri, the Parisian mob took up aims and forced the Minister and the queen-mother, Anne of Austria, to fly to Ruel, and afterwards, in 1649, to St. Germain. The Parisians were joined by De Retz. the Duc de Lougneville, Tureune, and other nobles, but the Court party were saved by Conde, who besieged Paris, and a compact signed at Ruel in April closed the struggle of the Old Fronde. The New Froude arose simply out of the personal dislike of the great nobles for Mazarin, whom they sought, to overthrow by intriguing with Spain. Conde. Conti. and Lougueville were arrested in January, 1650, but Turenne marched towards Paris with a force of Spaniards. His defeat at Rethel (December) and the mutual distrust of the leaders led to the breaking up of the party. The Frondenrs returned to their allegiance, with the exception of Conde, who was defeated by Turenne near Paris (July, 1652). and at last sought refuge in Spain. The declaration of a general amnesty <1653) was followed by the return of Mazarin and the complete triumph of the royal power.