Friuli (ancient Forum Julii), a district that lies at the head of the Adriatic, the eastern portion belonging to Austria, and having Trieste as its chief place, whilst the western division falls within the Italian province of Udine. The whole of this territory, which formed under the Romans part of Gallia Transpadana, was erected into a Lombard duchy, and ultimately conquered by Charlemagne. His successors assigned it to the Archbishops of Aquileia, but the Venetians were called in by the local aristocracy, and seized the land for themselves. The Counts of Gorz, however, continued to occupy the eastern extremity until Maximilian I. incorporated it with Austria. The Venetian share was acquired by the emperor through the peace of Campo Formio (1797), but was taken again by Napoleon in 1805, when Duroc was made Duke of Friuli. In 1814 Austria once more resumed possession of both parts, but ceded the western half to Italy at the treaty of Nicolsburg (1866). The territory still retained constitutes the Italia Irredenta that from time to time threatens the peace of Europe.