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Fremont

Fremont, John Charles (1813-90), an American explorer, born at Savannah, his father being a Frenchman. He became a civil engineer, and in 1842 explored the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains, and ascended the highest peak of the Wind River Mountains, which now bears his name. His report showed that an overland route from one side of North America to the other was practicable. Iu 1843 he explored the Great Salt Lake, and penetrated as far as Fort Vancouver. During the Mexican War he did good service, but was sentenced by court-martial to be dismissed the service for refusing to obey his superior officers. In 1848 he started on an expedition to the Rio Grande, but the guide lost his way, and only two-thirds of the party returned to Santa Fe (New Mexico) after terrible sufferings, which had caused a resort to cannibalism. Next year, however, Fremont reached California, where he became a senator of the newly organised State. He conducted another expedition to the Rio Grande in 1853. In 1856 he was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the Presidency, but in 1864 withdrew in favour of Lincoln. He was governor of Arizona in 1878-82. A scheme which he propounded for a South Pacific Railway caused him to be condemned for fraud by' the French Government in 1873, beet he did not appear at the trial. He published Memoirs of My Life in 1886.