Fischer, Ernst Kuno Berthold, a German philosopher, born in Silesia in 1824. He was educated at Leipzig and Halle, where he studied philosophy, and in 1850 established himself in Heidelberg as a privat-docent, but three years afterwards the Government deprived him of this post, probably on account of unorthodox views. In 1856 he obtained an appointment at Jena, and in 1872 was reappointed without opposition or interference at Heidelberg. His great work is a History of Modern Philosophy, in which he treats of Spinoza and the Cartesians, of Leibnitz, of Bacon and his successors, of Kant, of Fichte, and of Schelling. He also wrote other books, especially a System of Loyic and Metaphysic. He has had great influence upon German contemporary thought.
Pish, Hamilton, an American statesman, was born at New York in 1808, and called to the State bar in 1830. He was returned to Congress in 1842, and in 1847 became Lieutenant-Governor, and Governor in 1848. In 1853 he became a member of the United States Senate, and from 1869-77 was Secretary of State, in which capacity he was concerned in the Washington treaty of 1871, and in the settlement of the Alabama question.