Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Firman, a word of Persian origin, denoting an edict issued by an Eastern potentate or governing body, used especially of the decrees of the Ottoman Porte. In Turkey every firman is signed by the Minister to whose department it relates, but a cipher must be affixed by a special Minister appointed for the purpose before it can become valid. A firman differs from a Itatti-sherif in that the latter is signed by the sovereign himself, and is irrevocable. Passports and other licences granted by the Sultan are also called firmans.