Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Finland, a Granel Duchy subject to the Russian crown, contains 144,200 square miles, and is divided into eight governments. It is generally considered as made up of three parts: - First, the part ceded by Sweden in the 18th century; second, the rest of Swedish Finland, which was ceded in 1809; and third, the part of East Bothnia and Lapland, which was ceded in the same year. The country is bounded N. by Norway, S. by "the Gulf of Finland, E. by Russia, and W. by Sweden and the Gulf of Bothnia. The surface is mostly low-lying, and has no hills of any importance, but there are very many lakes, the principal of which are Enara, Ulea, Saima, and part of Ladoga, and there are several rivers, the chief being the Tornea, Kumo, Kymmene, Kemi, and Ijo. Some of the soil is cultivated, and there are large forests, which produce tar, pitch, and resin. Iron and copper are among the minerals, and there are granite quarries which produce huge blocks. There is a good deal of fishing. Helsingfors, the capital, is a fine town, and the country contains some good fortresses, and is well provided with railways and telegraphs. The inhabitants are mostly Finns and Swedes, who are generally Lutherans, and a few Russians and Germans. The Czar is Grand Duke, and the Diet consists of representatives of the nobles, clergy, burgesses, and peasants, and meets every three years. The governing body is composed of twenty Finlanders nominated by the Grand Duke, under the presidency of the Governor-General. The army is composed of Finns, and the law procedure is as in Swedish times. Its political independence has, however, been greatly encroached upon.