Findlater, Andrew (1810-1877), a man of letters, was born in Aberdeen, and educated at the university there. He at first studied theology, and then became a schoolmaster. From 1842-49 he was head-master of Gordon's Hospital, Aberdeen. He then spent some time in Canada, and in 1853 took work in the house of Messrs. Chambers. Besides other work, he edited the Encyclopedia, contributing many of the articles himself, a matter for which his all-round knowledge eminently fitted him. He also collaborated in preparing for the press James Mill's Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1869).
Pine. A species of assurance of real property which was commonly in use for conveying estates of freehold, prior to, but which was abolished by, the "Act for the abolition of fines and recoveries and for the substitution of more simple modes of assurance," passed in 1833. It was an amicable eerrangement (finis concordicc) of a suit either real or fictitious, but usually the latter, between the demandant and tenant, with the consent of the judges, and enrolled among the records of the.Court. Its modern substitute and equivalent is a disentailing deed, executed by the tenant in tail and enrolled, but in which the protector of the settlement has refused to concur. If a married woman levied a fine, she forfeited all her rights in the land; but the necessity of obtaining the consent of the judges afforded a sufficient protection of the rights of the lady. Its modern substitute is a deed acknowledged before a judge or duly authorised commissioner. [Estate.]