Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.

Fences

Fences are used in agriculture to prevent cattle from straying, and to protect land from the inroads of stray animals. Among the rudest kinds of wooden fence is the snake-fence, which is simply made by laying logs together so as to form a zig-zag line. When wood becomes scarce the fence is formed by laying rails horizontally across stobs fixed in the ground at intervals of two or three yards, to which they are attached by nails. The stob-and-rafter fence is a firmer but more expensive structure, consisting of stobs three or four inches apart, bound by a rail which runs along their upper extremity. In America rails are often split and sharpened so as to fit into openings in the stob. In old countries, where both wood and stone are scarce, their place is taken by hedges of plants, the hawthorn being commonly used in England. Wire fences are now common both in England and in Australia. In England it is incumbent on the tenant to keep and leave fences in due repair, but if he erects a wire or other temporary fence he may remove it if he can do so without injuring the ground.