Farnese, Alessandro, was born at Carino, Italy, in 1468, and was elected to the Papal chair in 1534 as successor to Clement VII., under the title of Paul III. His tenure of office was marked by many important events. It was he who hurled a bull of excommunication against Henry VIII., and formulated another famous decree known as In Cana Domini. He leagued himself with Charles V. and the Venetians against the Turks, brought about peace between France and Italy, aided to establish the Order of the Jesuits (1540), and convoked the Council of Trent (1542). A great patron of art, he summoned Michael Angelo to complete the construction of St. Peter's. His affection for his son, Pietro Luigi, a dissolute voluptuary, whom he made Duke of Parma, brought him into unpopularity, and provoked the hatred of Charles V. He died in 1549.