Daghestan, a district of 11,400 square miles with 530,000 inhabitants, forming a Russian government in the Caucasian territory. The country, whose name signifies "mountainous" in Turkish, extends from the Upper Terek Valley to the Caspian, and is penetrated by three spurs of the Caucasus, one of which near the capital, Derbend, divides the land into North and South. Since its re-organisation in 1867 it comprises the Russian administrative divisions of Lesghistan, Tarku, and Derbend, with parts of the ancient kingdom of Georgia. It is a sort of Switzerland, with mountains, valleys, lakes, and torrents flowing into the Caspian. The land is fertile, and there is much rain. Among the products are wheat, tobacco, fruits, and abundance of wild vines which yield good grapes. Cattle are reared in the mountains, and the forests abound in game. The camel, horse, ass, mule, sheep and goat are reared. Among the minerals are lead, sulphur, and iron. Russian authority has been acknowledged since the submission of Schamyl in 1859, but is not very firmly fixed.