Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.

Castelary Rissol

Castelar-y-Rissol, Emilio, born in 1832 of a middle-class Spanish family, and brought up as a Liberal Catholic, won literary distinction very early by a novel, Ernesto, and by many articles in the Madrid press. He also established a great reputation for eloquence. Elected professor of history and philosophy in the University, and editing at the same time the Democracia, he exercised considerable political influence, and in 1866, being mixed up in the abortive revolutionary movement, he was condemned to death, but managed to escape to France. There he wrote some interesting non-political sketches, Ricuerdos de Italia being the most graphic. Returning to Spain in 1868 he advocated a federal republic, actively opposed the government of Amadeo, and forced on his resignation. In the republic that followed he played a leading part, but his Liberal Catholicism was acceptable neither to the Socialists nor to the Ultramontanes. In 1873 he was appointed dictator, but even with that amount of power he failed to make head against the Reds in the south, and Don Carlos in the north. He resigned next year and again took refuge in France, where he published among other works a History of the Republican Movement in Europe. Alfonso permitted his return in 1876, and, conscious of previous failures, he limited himself to verbal protests against the monarchy, nor did he attempt any revolt against the dynasty when the king died in 1885.