Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Carmine, a beautiful red pigment obtained from cochineal. It is so obtained by treating the cochineal with boiling water, and then adding alum and cream of tartar, when the carmine is precipitated. Other modes are also employed, and about 1-1/2 oz. can be obtained from 1 lb. of cochineal. The temperature and brightness of the day during preparation affect the brilliancy of the pigment. Its chemical composition cannot be definitely stated, but it appears to be a mixture of carminic acid, the colouring matter of cochineal, alumina, lime, and some organic acid. It is used as "rouge" and as a pigment.