Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Cappadocia, a country of vague extent in Asia Minor. Herodotus speaks of the Cappadocians as Syrians. They inhabited two distinct satrapies of Persia, the northern one later on being known as Pontus, whilst the inland province, bounded S. by Mount Taurus, E. by the Euphrates, N. by Pontus, and W. by Galatia and Lycaonia, became Cappadocia or Great Cappadocia, being about 250 miles long and 150 broad. The Persian satraps seem to have developed into hereditary kings, the first of whom, Ariarathes I., a contemporary of Alexander, was killed by Perdiccas. The dynasty, however, lasted until Mithridates the Great drove out Ariarathes VIII., who soon after died. The Romans now interfered, and Ariobarzanes was elected to the throne, and remained, as did his son, a staunch ally of Rome. The third of this line was put to death by Antony, and for 50 years Archelaus reigned over an extended kingdom. In 17 A.D. Cappadocia became a Roman province, and in 1074 it was conquered by the Turks. Most of the region, except the valley of the Euphrates, is a lofty, treeless plateau, 3,000 ft. above sea-level, affording pasture to immense flocks. From the midst of this expanse rise Mounts Argasus (Erdjish Dagh) and Hassan Dagh. The chief rivers are the Pyramus (Jihun), the Sarus (Sihun), and the Halys (Kizil Irmak), on which is situated Mazaca or Caesarea (Kaisariyeh), the capital. Tyana occupied the site now known as Kiz-Hissar, and other towns of some ecclesiastical importance were Nyssa, an episcopal see, and Nazianzus, the birthplace of St. Gregory.