Caillaud, Frederic (1787-1869), a French traveller, born at Nantes. Having a taste for mineralogy, he came to Paris to study natural science, and acquiring also a taste for travelling he visited successively Holland, Italy, Sicily, Greece, and Turkey, collecting minerals and dealing in precious stones. In 1815 he was commissioned by Mehemet Ali to explore the desert east and west of the Nile, and discovered ancient emerald mines, ancient roads, temples, and other interesting antiquities. In 1819 he made another expedition, and being allowed in 1821 to accompany Ismael Bey, the son of Mehemet Ali, in a campaign against Nubia, he profited by it to make observations of the highest value in archaeology, geography, and natural history. He afterwards became director of the museum of Nantes, and published interesting works both on his travels and discoveries, and on the life, manners, and conditions of the ancient races of Egypt, Nubia, and Ethiopia, accompanied by details of the manners and customs of the modern inhabitants of those countries.