Brugsch, Heinrich Karl, Egyptologist, was born in 1827 at Berlin. He first went to Egypt in 1853, and engaged in Mariette's excavations at Memphis. After a journey to Persia in 1860 he was appointed to the chair of Oriental languages at Gottingen. In 1869 he again returned to Egypt, not coming back till 1883, when he had been created a bey and a pasha by the Egyptian government. Among his numerous works, which are of the first rank, the chief are Geographische Inschriften altagyptischer Denkmaler, Geschichte Eygptens unter den Pharaonen, Dictionnaire Geographique de l'ancienne Eyypte, Travels in Egypt, Demotic Grammar, and Demotic and Hieroglyphic Dictionary.