Bremer, Frederika, novelist, was born in 1802, near Abo, in Finland. Chiefly brought up in Sweden, whither her family removed on the cession of Finland to Russia, she in 1828 made her first public appearance as an authoress in Sketches of Every-day Life, which at once attracted notice, and won for her the gold medal of the Swedish Academy. Other works soon followed, and procured for her a European reputation. Through her friend Mary Howitt her novels became known to English readers. In 1849 she visited America, and in 1853 published simultaneously in America, England, and Sweden, her Homes of the New World. Latterly Miss Bremer gave up fiction, and devoted herself to philanthropic work, and chiefly to the emancipation of women. Quitting Stockholm in 1864, she retired to Arsta, where she had lived as a girl, and died in the following year. Her books have been translated into nearly every European language.