Bosnia, a Turkish province, placed by the treaty of Berlin in 1878 under the administration of Austria-Hungary, is situated in the north-west of the Balkan peninsula. Its surface, which, with Herzegovina, the southern portion, and Novi-Bazar, covers an area of about 24,000 square miles, is for the most part mountainous, and is traversed by the Dinaric Alps, which here attain their maximum elevation. Its chief rivers are the Save, Verbas, Bosna, Rama, and Drina. It is chiefly a pastoral country, tillage being confined to the valley of the Save. It yields coal, antimony, manganese, and iron; and has industries in fire - arms, leather, woollens, cottons, and gunpowder. The inhabitants are Mohammedans for the most part, and of Slavonian origin. It passed under Turkish sway in 1401, but the Sultan is now only its nominal head.