Bolton, or Bolton-le-Moors, a parliamentary and municipal borough, and manufacturing town of S. Lancashire, 11 miles N.W. of Manchester, and situate upon the river Croal, which divides it into Great and Little Bolton. Cotton and woollen manufactures, introduced by the Flemings of the 14th century, had already made it famous in Henry VIII.'s time. French and German immigrants introduced new manufactures, and the 18th century improvements in cotton-spinning gave great impetus to the trade. Arkwright resided in Bolton, and Crompton was born here, but it was long before the prejudices of the mill-hands would allow the adoption of the frame and the mule. Bolton now contains more than 100 mills, and about four million spindles. Its chief manufactures are fine calicoes, dimities, muslins, quilts, counterpanes, and the like; and there are large foundries and iron-works, bleaching-mills dye-works, chemical works, and paper-mills; and the neighbourhood is full of coal-pits. The public institutions are fine and numerous, and there is a park and recreation grounds. The water is brought from the hills five miles off, and rises by natural pressure to a height of 80 feet, and is in the hands of the corporation. A canal goes from Bolton to Manchester. The town was stormed in 1644 by Prince Rupert and the Earl of Derby; and Ainsworth and Lempriere - of dictionary fame - were masters at the grammar school, founded here in 1641.