Bishop-Auckland, a market-town in the county of Durham, situated at the confluence of the Wear and the Gannlees, 11 miles S.W. of the city of Durham, with a station on the North-Eastern Railway. It derives its name from the palatial residence of the bishops of Durham, established here in Edward I.'s reign. The modern town hall has a tower 100 feet in height, the streets are well-built and clean, and there are churches, chapels, and the usual public buildings. The manufacture of cotton goods and machinery employs most of the population, but there are large coal-mines in the neighbourhood.