Bhutan, or Bootan, an independent kingdom in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bounded on the N. by Tibet, E. and S. by Assam, and W. by Sikkim. Its area has been variously estimated at ten, fifteen, and twenty thousand square miles. Its surface is rugged and mountainous, in the northern part reposing in the region of perpetual snow. Forests of oak and pine and other trees, and the ordinary agricultural crops, are found in its more genial districts. The rulers of the Bhutanese, who are Bhuddists, are named Dharm Rajah, the spiritual head, and Deb Rajah, the temporal head. These are controlled by a body of permanent ministers. Polygamy and polyandry prevail. Among the exports of the country are horses, musk, salt, and silk. Its chief towns are Poonukka and Tassisudon.