Berengarius was born at Tours in 998 and was educated by Fulbert of Chartres. In 1031, as master of the cathedral school in his native city he acquired great fame, but had a powerful rival in Lanfranc of Bee. It is said that in order to attract attention he adopted novel views, especially as to the eucharist, rejecting the doctrine of transubstantiation. He was condemned in 1050 and imprisoned. He was protected by Hildebrand, and partly recanted, but soon resumed his old teaching, and continued to do so until 1079, when he was summoned to a council at Rome, and compelled by his former ally - now Pope Gregory VII. - to publicly retract; He then withdrew to an island in the Loire and spent his declining years in solitude and prayer, dying in 1088.