Benevento, a province and its capital in South Italy. The province, which occupies the central portion of Campania, has an area of 669 square miles. Under the Lombards it was a duchy, and then fell into the hands of the Popes. Napoleon converted it into a principality and bestowed it on Talleyrand. The city was probably founded by the Samnites, and received a Roman colony early in the 3rd century B.C., when its name was changed to Beneventum. Situated on the Appian Way, it was highly prosperous in ancient times, and contains more architectural remains than any town of its size. Trajan's beautiful arch serves as a gateway in the enclosing walls which are of much later date. The amphitheatre has been nearly destroyed, the masonry being used for building. The castle dates from the 12th century, and the cathedral is in the Lombardo-Saracenic style. A large trade is carried on in grain, and the chief manufactures are leather, parchment, and plated goods.