Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant, was born at New Orleans in 1818, and educated at West Point, entering the artillery of the United States in 1838, and after active service in Mexico being transferred to the engineers. In 1861 when the civil war broke out he was at the head of the West Point Academy. He adopted the Southern cause, commanded in the attack on Fort Sumter, and took part in the battle of Bull Run. In 1862 he fought at Shiloh under A. S. Johnston, and next year held Charleston against Gilmore. He was serving in North Carolina with E. S. Johnston when the latter surrendered in 1865. He then made his home in the south, and became president of the New Orleans, Jackson, and Mississippi Railway.