Bauer, Bruno, was born at Eisenberg, Duchy of Saxe-Altenberg, in 1809. After studying at Berlin and holding an appointment in the university there and at Bonn, he turned to writing on theological and political subjects. His writings were mostly of a controversial character and landed him in many disputes. He also wrote histories relating to the eighteenth century, the leading idea that he sought to expound in them being that the popular struggles of the nineteenth century failed through the character of the enlightenment of the eighteenth. He died in 1882, the year in which was published Disraelis romantischer und Bismarck's sozialistischer Imperialismus, his last work.