Banff, a port and royal borough, the capital of Banffshire, Scotland. It is a well-built town, with a good harbour, protected by a castle at the mouth of the river Deveron, which is crossed by a bridge of seven arches. The public buildings are excellent, among them being the hospital founded by Alexander Chalmers. On the opposite side of the river is Macduff, the seat of a thriving shipping trade. Archbishop Sharp was born here. Together with Elgin and five other towns, it sends a member to Parliament. The county has an area of 686 sq. m., and a coast-line of 30 miles. It returns one member to Parliament. The soil is mostly fertile and well tilled, but cattle-breeding is more profitable than agriculture. The Spey and the Deveron abound with salmon, and herrings are plentiful off the coast. Some of the mountains are of great height, Cairngorm attaining 4,060 feet. They yield marbles, granites, limestones, crystals, and topazes. Yarns, linens, and woollen goods are manufactured; and the distilleries of Glenlivat are celebrated.