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Baden The Grand Duchyof

Baden, The Grand Duchy of, a state in the S.W. of Germany, between Bavaria and Hesse Darmstadt on the N. and Switzerland on the S. Physically it is mountainous and woody, though with plenty of fertile valleys and wider stretches of champaign towards the E. From the bend of the Rhine and Lake Constance to the Neckar extends the Schwarzwald, or Black Forest, of which the portion S. of the river Kinzig has a mean elevation of 3,100 ft., the Feldberg, the highest peak, being 4,780 ft., whilst the N. half averages a thousand feet less. Beyond the Neckar lies the Odenwald with a height of 1,440 ft. Woods chiefly of pine clothe these hillsides from top to bottom, and are a valuable source of revenue. Many streams pour from them to the Rhine and Neckar, supplying water-power. The mineral resources are various but not abundant, though iron, lead, and zinc are worked with profit. Gypsum, china-clay, potter's earth, peat, and salt, are found in considerable quantities. Mineral springs exist in many places and are much esteemed. The manufactures are not extensive, but are being developed. Cotton fabrics, jewellery, and wood carving employ an increasing number of hands. The two universities, Heidelberg and Freiburg (Roman Catholic), enjoy European celebrity. The State owes its origin to the House of Zahringen - a petty fief in the eleventh century that gradually absorbed neighbouring territory, and by the judicious policy of successive dukes became a small power. By the treaties of Luneville (1801) and Pressburg (1805) additions were secured, and on the downfall of the empire in 1806 Baden joined Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine, the ruler becoming a Grand Duke with fresh accessions of land. After 1815 Baden dexterously re-entered the comity of nations, and was further extended. The Grand Dukes conceded a constitution with two chambers, one elective, the other not, and with certain checks on arbitrary government. These reforms did not prevent the expulsion of the sovereign by Brentano in 1848, but Prussia interfered and he was restored. In 1866 Baden joined the Anti-Prussian party, but offered no strenuous resistance to incorporation with the German Empire in 1870. The form of a separate government is still preserved, though independence is virtually extinct.