Austria. Originally given to a small district on the south bank of the Danube, this name now, includes all the lands which have been at various times annexed to the Austrian crown. These are: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the coast districts (Goerz-Gradisca, Istria, and Trieste), Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukowina, and Dalmatia. The term is frequently, though incorrectly, used in a still more extended sense to indicate all the dominions of the Emperor Francis Joseph I. These include, in addition, the kingdom of Hungary, made up of the "crown-lands" of Hungary, Transylvania (Siebenburgen), Fiume. Croatia, and Slavonia.
Austria and Hungary are separated by the river Leitha, whence they are often called Cis-Leithania and Trans-Leithania respectively, and are so intimately connected, geographically and politically, that it will be found more convenient to consider them together. The present article therefore treats of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, the ruler of which is officially styled "Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary." The monarchy is, with the exception of Russia, the largest of the European states. It extends from long. 9° to long. 26° E., and from lat. 42° to lat. 51° N., comprising an area of 240,942 English square miles. These figures do not include the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with an area of 20,000 sq. m., which, though nominally still provinces of the Ottoman Empire, have since 1878 been governed and administered entirely by Austria.
Mountains. - Next to Switzerland, Austria is by far the most mountainous land in Europe, no less than four-fifths of its area being more than 6,000 feet above the sea-level. The chief ranges are (1) the Alps, in the south-western region, distinguished as the Rhaetian, Noric, Carnic, Julian, and Dinaric Alps, the highest peak being the Ortler Spitze, 12,814 feet, in the first-named division; (2) the Carpathians in the E. and N.E., culminating in the Eisthaler Thurm, 8,378 feet, and (3) the Hercynian system, in Bohemia, Silesia, and Moravia, including the Erzgebirge and the Riesengebirge with its crowning peak, the Schneekoppe, 5,330 feet.
Rivers. - Owing to the conformation of the great watersheds formed by the ranges above described, the rivers flow in three directions, north, south, and east. The most important is the Danube, which, entering the empire at its confluence with the Inn, by Passau, on the Bavarian frontier, traverses it for a distance of 820 miles (rather less than half of its total length), quitting Austrian territory at the Iron Gate, a gorge formed by the near approach of the Eastern Carpathians and a branch of the Balkan range, on the confines of Bulgaria and Wallachia. During this part of its course the Danube falls 766 feet. The largest of its many tributaries is the Theiss, which drains the eastern plains of Lower Hungary, rising on the borders of Galicia, and flowing into the Danube below Peterwardein; it is navigable throughout nearly the whole 500 miles of its length. It is worthy of note, as illustrating the inland situation of the empire, that not one river of any importance debouches into the sea in Austrian territory.
Lakes. - The largest is the Platten See, or Lake Balaton (the ancient Volcea Palus), in south-west Hungary, 48 miles in length; it is very shallow, and slightly salt. The Neusiedler See, about 30 miles S.E. of Vienna, within the Hungarian border, is remarkable for the changes in its level, which sometimes varies to the extent of five or six feet. In Lake Zirknitz, in the mountains of Illyria, there is a total disappearance of the waters in summer, so that the bottom is brought under cultivation and produces a harvest of clover and rice.
Coast-line. - This is limited to the eastern shore of the Adriatic - Austria's only sea - from the Gulf of Trieste to Cattaro in Dalmatia. The coast constitutes about one-fifth of the total frontier line.
The climate differs considerably in the different States, but is generally good and healthy, except in the swampy districts of Lower Hungary.
Minerals abound in both Austria and Hungary; in the amount of the precious metals no other European country can compare with them. There are gold mines now yielding a fair amount of ore, which were worked by the Romans of old. Iron, copper, lead, salt, and coal are widely diffused. The richest quicksilver mine in Europe, after that of Almaden in Spain, is at Idria in Carniola. An exceptionally good quality of iron, obtained in Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, goes by the name of "native steel."
Flora. - The variations in the climate produce an extended range in the vegetable world, from the olive and palm on the mild Adriatic coast to flax and other northern plants in Galicia and Bohemia, besides the distinct flora of the Alpine regions. The number of plants is estimated at 12,000, about one-third of which are flowering species. Of these nearly one-half are found in Lower Austria, which alone produces some 1,700 flowering plants. A leading characteristic of the country is the abundance of forests, which extend over about a third of its surface. Some of the finest oak and other timber trees in Europe are to be found in the mountain regions of Transylvania.
Fauna. - The large proportion of Alpine and forest land makes Austria an exceptionally interesting country to the sportsman and the naturalist, several wild animals being still frequently met with, which have long disappeared from more highly cultivated regions. Among others may be noted the brown bear, lynx, wolf, jackal, deer, chamois (now very scarce), and wild boar. The golden eagle and others of the falconidae, with two or three kinds of vulture, inhabit the wild mountainous districts, and the Hungarian marshes abound in waterfowl of numerous species; the white heron or egret is so plentiful that its feathers are an article of export. The great bustard is still found in the plains of Hungary. The Theiss is said to be more plentifully stocked with fish than any other European river, the lakes also have an abundant supply, some of the species being elsewhere unknown.
Population. - The official estimates for the end of the year 1890 were: - Austria, 23,895,833; Hungary, 17,180,971; military population not otherwise included, 162,423; total 41,239,227, or slightly over 172 to the square mile. The various races which contribute to this total may be roughly classified as follows: (1) Slavs (about 19 millions) including Czechs and Moravians in the north, Slovacks in the Western Carpathians, Poles and Ruthens in Galicia, Slovens, Croatians, and Serbs in the south; (2) Germans (10 millions), mostly in Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria; (3) Magyars (6-1/2 millions) in Hungary; (4) Roumanians (2-1/2 millions) in the Bukowina and parts of Transylvania and Hungary. The rest of the population is made up of Italians, Jews, Armenians, Greeks, Albanians, Gipsies, etc.
History. - Passing over the classical period, during which the struggles of the Pannonians, Dacians, and other inhabitants of the basin of the Danube against the Roman arms were not such as to distinguish them from other "barbarians," we come at once to the period of Charlemagne. The great Kaiser, towards the end of the eighth century, founded the margravate of Austria (called Oesterreich, or Eastern Kingdom, from its position with reference to Charlemagne's other dominions), in the country S. of the Danube and E. of the river Enns. In the year 1156 the Emperor Frederick I. added the country W. of the Enns, and raised Austria to the rank of a duchy. In 1278 the Emperor Rudolf I. took possession of the duchy. Four years later he gave it to his son, Albrecht I. of Hapsburg, and thus became the founder of the dynasty which has ever since swayed the destinies of Austria. After many changes and transfers, often of a violent nature, to various branches of the Hapsburg dynasty, Austria in 1453 was made an Archduchy. Ferdinand I., brother and successor to the Emperor Charles V., married a daughter of the King of Hungary and Bohemia, by which union those countries were first brought under Austrian rule.
Hungary had been a separate kingdom for 500 years before this, its first king, Stephen I., having been crowned A.D. 1000. Hungarian history for centuries after his accession is one long record of struggles against the Turks. Indeed it is mainly owing to the resistance of the brave Magyars, who were unsurpassed as light cavalry, that the oriental despotism of the Ottoman Empire was confined to the south-eastern corner of Europe. These Magyars. from whom the Hungarian of to-day is proud to claim descent, are known to be a kindred race with the Turks and Fins. Their name and language, with many features of their character, still survive. The most distinguished of the Hungarian kings was: Matthias Corvinus, who gained a high reputation for valour, justice and learning. He founded the University of Pressburg in 1467, and died in 1490.
On the death of the Emperor Karl VI. in 1740 the male line of the Hapsburgs came to an end, but his daughter, Maria Theresa, succeeded him, by virtue of the Pragmatic Sanction. The war which ensued, commonly called "the War of the Austrian Succession," ended in the triumph of Maria Theresa over most of the European sovereigns, including Frederick the Great. Maria Theresa married Duke Francis of Lorraine and Tuscany, her descendants being consequently named the Hapsburg-Lothringen (Lorraine) line. She died in 1780, and was followed on the throne by her two sons, Joseph II. (died 1790) and Leopold II. (died 1792). When the Holy Roman Empire was extinguished by Napoleon in 1804 Leopold's son, Franz I., assumed the title of Emperor (Kaiser) of Austria. He was four times married, and died in 1835, leaving a large family. His son, Ferdinand I., abdicated in 1848, when "his nephew, the present Emperor Franz Josef I., succeeded to the united thrones. The crown of Hungary, it may be observed, is conferred by a separate ceremony at the Hungarian capital, the king's claim being based on the Pragmatic Sanction of 1724, which secured the succession to the direct heirs of the House of Hapsburg.
The chief event of the present reign was the war with Prussia in 1866, which was occasioned by difficulties arising out of the joint administration of the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein, taken from Denmark in 1864. The war terminated in the defeat of Austria at Koniggriitz, and the formation of the North German Confederation. From that time Austria ceased to be reckoned as a German power.
Constitution and Government. - Although united under the sway of one monarch, the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary are not by any means amalgamated. At the date of the union (1724) Austria was an absolute, Hungary a limited monarchy. No attempt to combine the two countries under an identical system has been found successful, but after many political vicissitudes the government is now, by virtue of a law of 1867, established in a form which may be described as constitutionalism on a dual basis.
The Austrian parliament, or Reichsrath, consists of two chambers. The Upper House (Herrenhaus) is composed of princes of the imperial house, heads of noble families, the archbishops, certain of the bishops, and an indefinite number of men distinguished in church, state, science, or art, nominated for life by the emperor. The Lower House (Haus der Abgeordneten) contains 353 elected members, chosen by voters, who are themselves elected in the proportion of 1 to every 500 inhabitants.
The Hungarian parliament, or Reichstag, has also two houses, the upper (Magnatentafel) composed of the higher clergy and nobility, and the lower (Reprasentantentafel) of 447 deputies from the counties and towns.
The two parliaments elect annually a body of 120 members, 20 from each upper and 40 from each lower house, which is known as the Delegations, and meets alternately at Vienna and Pesth to discuss affairs relating to the whole monarchy.
The legislative power is vested in the sovereign and the two houses in each country, the executive in the sovereign alone.
Each of the Austrian crown-lands has a Landtag for the management of local affairs, but in Hungary only Croatia and Slavonia (together) have such a body. The number of members varies according to locality, from 20 in Vorarlberg to 240 in Bohemia.
The Ministers of Foreign Affairs, War, and Imperial Finance act for the whole monarchy, under the presidency of the first-named. Austria has the following 7 Ministries: - Interior, Worship and Instruction, Commerce, Agriculture, National Defence, Justice, and Finance, besides a Minister without portfolio, and a separate Minister for Galicia. Hungary has the first seven as in Austria, with a Ministry of Public Works and Communications, a separate minister for Croatia and Slavonia, and a "Minister a latere." The last of these is established at Vienna, and forms a connecting link between the sovereign and the Hungarian Government, All the others are at Buda-Pesth, the Hungarian capital.
Religion. - Perfect liberty of faith and conscience is allowed. Every recognised religious body enjoys freedom of worship and management of its affairs. The "recognised" bodies are the Roman Catholic, Greek - Oriental, Evangelical (Lutheran and Reformed), Gregorian-Armenian, and Jewish churches throughout the monarchy, together with the old Catholics and the Evangelical Brotherhood in Austria, and the Unitarians in Hungary. The Roman Catholics constitute about 80 per cent. of the population in Austria, and about 50 per cent. in Hungary. All the churches are alike independent of the state.
Education. - (1) Elementary schools. The erection of these is incumbent on the several school districts. Attendance is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 14 (with slight variations in some states). There are two grades in Austria, and three in Hungary. "Religion and Morals" forms one of the obligatory subjects in all. In 1895 the attendance in Austria was 87.2 per cent. In Hungary, in 1896, it was 77.8. School-fees vary considerably in different localities, but are generally very low. In Hungary they average 12 per cent. of the total cost of education. (2) Gymnasia and realschulen. These are preparatory for the universities and technical schools; the curriculum extends over 7 or 8 years. They are mostly maintained by the state, or enjoy a subvention from it. (3) Universities and colleges. There are in all 11 universities, 8 in Austria and 3 in Hungary. The oldest is at Pressburg (once the Hungarian capital), founded in 1467, and the largest is at Vienna, with over 5,000 students. There are four faculties, viz. theology, law, medicine, and philosophy. Of theological colleges, Austria has 51 and Hungary 49; the latter country also possesses 11 schools of law. There are seven government technical high schools of engineering and chemistry, and nearly 2,000 technical institutes for teaching agriculture, forestry, mining, and other industries, art, music, etc.
It is to be noted that there are no establishments for the education of boys of the upper classes on a par with our public schools; the majority of such boys are educated at home, and examined periodically at the gymnasium to test their progress.
Industries. - Agriculture has never attained the importance which the natural opportunities appear to indicate. Only 6.2 per cent. of the entire Austro-Hungarian area is unproductive. The Hungarian plains consist of soil equal to any in Europe in fertility, and might long since have placed the country in the foremost rank among the corn-lands of the world. Excessive duties, imperfect means of communication, and too rigid adherence to antiquated methods, have all contributed to check progress, but under the present regime the first two obstacles have been removed, and the third is gradually passing away. Austria-Hungary now ranks third of the European grain-producing countries, being surpassed by Russia and France. The grain exported in 1888 was valued at nearly £8,000,000, besides wheat-flour worth £2,458,000.
Vines are extensively cultivated, especially in Hungary, which produces Tokay, one of the finest wines known. The average annual production of wine is more than 180 million gallons.
Forestry is naturally a considerable feature of national industry, and is thoroughly and systematically studied. The timber of various kinds (oak, beech, maple, and pine form the bulk) reaches the large annual aggregate of 7,240 million cubic feet.
Pastures of almost unlimited extent abound in Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, and Dalmatia. Austria and Hungary have for centuries been noted as horse-breeding countries, and still bear a high reputation. The Ministers of Agriculture both encourage breeding, by a system of annual grants to private owners of stallions. There are three government studs in Austria, and three in Hungary, established for the improvement of the various breeds. Most of these studs have been in existence for about a century. Annual horse shows are held in each district, at which money prizes and medals are awarded by government commissioners. Many wealthy landowners have private breeding establishments. The Austrian Stud Book is issued annually. There is a great partiality for Arab blood, several noblemen having devoted much time and money to the maintenance of the purest breed. The best horses for general purposes are said to come from Transylvania. Hungary supplies the greatest number. In the whole monarchy the number of horses is estimated at more than 3-1/2 millions.
Cattle are reared chiefly by the peasantry in the Alpine districts, especially the Tyrol and Styria. There is room for much greater development in this department of farming, which is unnecessarily limited to certain provinces. Sheep-farming received a notable impulse by the introduction in 1763 of the merino sheep into Moravia, Silesia, and Bohemia. At the present time these countries do not maintain their superiority, and the greater part of the sheep are raised in Hungary. Total for the monarchy, about 14,000,000.
Fishing is an important industry on the Adriatic coast, and employs 12,500 fishermen, with 3,200 boats, the "takes" realising as much as 2,500,000 florins in the course of the year (1 florin = ls. 8d).
Mining is one of the chief industries of Austria, and might be carried on to a greater extent than is now the case. The mineral wealth of the monarchy is enormous, but the annual output is quite insignificant. Coal, in particular, should receive far more attention. Seeing that coal is found in all the crown lands of both Austria and Hungary, with the single exception of Salzburg, it seems strange that Hungary alone imported about 700,000 tons in 1889, and that the annual produce of the whole monarchy only exceeds that of Belgium by about 14 per cent., being somewhat less than that of France. The consumption of coal in Hungary during 1889 exceeded 3,500,000 tons, of which about 20 per cent. was from abroad. The increase in the annual demand has been calculated at 200,000 tons, of which one-half is imported.
In the iron mines the same lack of enterprise keeps the production below what might reasonably be expected. Taking Hungary again as an example, we find that the total output of gold, silver, iron, and other metals is not worth more than £1,800,000, In getting this, some 48,000 miners are employed, including about 800 women and 4,000 children under 16 years of age. In Austria there are about 116,000 miners, besides about 13,000 men engaged at smelting works. In 1889 the production of pig-iron in the whole monarchy was 816,000 tons.
Salt mines are worked at Halicz, Wieliczka, and Bochnia in Galicia, Maros Ujvar in Transylvania, Sugatag in Hungary, and many other places. The mine at Bochnia is nearly two miles long, a furlong wide, and 1,000 feet deep, while that at Wielickza forms a regular underground town, about a mile long and half a mile wide, with streets, churches, etc., cut out of the salt. With all these natural facilities, the monarchy only takes the fifth place among salt producers, with an average about one-seventh of that of Great Britain. The annual value is about £1,200,000, and the industry employs some 12,000 men. It is a government monopoly.
Manufactures have advanced greatly during the last 25 years. One of the oldest is that of linen, some of which is still spun, and the greater part woven, by hand labour. Bohemia, Silesia, and Moravia are the chief seats of this industry. Cotton fabrics are produced in increasing quantities in the same districts, and woollen cloths in Moravia and Lower Austria. Bohemia has a world-wide reputation for the manufacture of various kinds of glass, and the Tyrol has long been noted for the production of carved woodwork. Paper is made chiefly in Bohemia and in or near Vienna. Beet sugar is manufactured principally in Bohemia. About 68,090 persons are engaged in the trade, at some 200 factories. Brewing is an important trade, especially in Lower Austria and Bohemia. There were 1,638 breweries at work in 1894, and over £660,000 worth of beer was exported.
Commerce. - Austria has never taken high rank as a commercial nation. The mountainous character of many of her provinces, and her relatively small sea-board, have offered serious natural obstacles to development in this direction. Of late, however, much has been done by commercial legislation and improvement of the means of transport, to foster native industries, with marked beneficial results. The chief want now appears to be an increase of enterprise in the employment of capital, and greater confidence in commercial undertakings independent of government aid or patronage.
For the purposes of foreign trade Austria-Hungary forms a single customs union, embracing also Bosnia, Herzegovina, and the principality of Lichtenstein, but exclusive of Trieste and Fiume, which are free ports.
The shipping trade is limited by the small accommodation. The progress made in the last few years is shown by the following figures: in 1880 Austria owned 113 steam and 8,097 sailing vessels; in 1896 these numbers had increased to 202 and 11,710 respectively, 69 of the steamers being of sea-going class. At Trieste alone in 1896 there entered 8,728 vessels, with an aggregate of 1,780,888 tons, and cleared 8,773 vessels, 1,785,707 tons. About 80 per cent. of this tonnage was Austrian, the rest mainly French, Italian and English. No bounties or subsidies are granted in aid of ship-building, but materials and fittings are imported free of duty.
It is interesting to note the proportion of this trade which is carried on with Great Britain. In 1896 there were exported to England goods to the value of £1,232,678, more than half of which consisted of wheat, flour, and over £79,000 of wood. From England, in the same year, Austria imported goods to the amount of £1,508,304, the principal items being cotton manufactures, £496,451; iron, £107,796; and machinery, £203,650.
Communications. - Although Austria claims the credit of having possessed the first (horse) railway on the continent of Europe, that between Linz and Budweis, completed in 1827, her railway system was until quite recently a long way behind that of some of her neighbours. Within the last twenty years, however, the increase has been very great, particularly in Hungary, where the length of lines, which in 1867 was only ahout 1,400 miles, now amounts to 6,700 miles. The total mileage for the whole monarchy was, in 1896, 18,615 miles, besides 480 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Part of this consists of state railways, part of railways owned and worked by companies, and part of lines owned by companies but worked by the state, or vice versa.
The number of passengers carried in 1895 was over 201,000,000, and the goods amounted to 117,000,000 tons. This may compare rather unfavourably with the traffic returns of other nations, but it is to be borne in mind that the Austrians, and more especially the Hungarians, are scattered over a wide tract of country, where distances are great, and incentives to travel fewer than in many other lands. Railway fares, too, were till recently far too high for the means of the lower orders of the population. This last fact led the Hungarian Minister of Public Works and Communications to introduce in 1889 the radical reform known as the "Zone Tariff," wherein the station from which the traveller starts is taken as the centre of 14 zones, the fare being the same to all other stations in any zone, i.e. at any equal radial distance. The introduction of this system (limited to the railways under state control) was followed by a large increase of traffic, and the example has been followed by the adoption of a modification of it, known as the "Kreuzer Tariff," on the Austrian state lines, but neither system can yet be said to have passed out of the experimental stage. It should be added, however, that some of the railway companies are adopting similar tariffs. The reduction of fares in Hungary is said to have been at the rate of about 40 per cent., but, on the other hand, return tickets and some other privileges have been abolished.
The roads amount in total length to 63,920 miles. They are of varying degrees of excellence, some of those in the Alps, from the Tyrol and Ulyria to Lombardy, being admirably constructed, while in Hungary, mainly for want of suitable material, many of the roads are of very poor quality.
Waterways. - The Danube is navigable for sailing vessels below Pesth and for specially built steamers as far as Ulm. The Danube Steam Navigation Company, the principal steamboat owners in Vienna, carried in 1895 nearly three millions of passengers, and about two million tons of freight, On the Elbe the freight reached to about 500,000 tons. Several other rivers are navigable through part of their length. In Austria there are 2,384 miles of rivers and canals open to timber rafts only, 1,706 miles to barges, etc., including 814 to steamers, giving a total of 4,090 miles; in Hungary 3,050 miles. Canals are almost confined to the Hungarian plains. The most important are the Bega Canal, and the Franzens Canal between the Theiss and the Danube. The Schwarzenberg Canal, which connects the Elbe and Danube navigations, is for timber only. There are many smaller ones, constructed chiefly for the purpose of draining the Hungarian marshes.
Army. - The military system comprises (1) the Active Army; (2) the Austrian Landwehr, and (3) the Hungarian Landwehr, or "Honved." The whole is organised into fifteen army corps, each corps consisting of two divisions of the active army, and one division of Austrian or Hungarian Landwehr. In the event of war these corps would form three armies, one of five and two of four corps; the fourteenth corps being specially assigned to the Tyrol and the fifteenth to Bosnia and Herzegovina. There is also a separate military command at Zara, in Dalmatia, for local defence. The total number of infantry divisions would be 48, on a general mobilisation, but about 17 of these are non-existent during peace.
The cavalry are formed into brigades of two regiments, attached to the army corps, and five independent cavalry divisions. There are in all 41 regiments, 14 of Dragoons, 16 of Hussars, and 11 of Uhlans, each having six field squadrons of five officers and 166 men (war strength), besides a depot squadron and the cadre of a reserve squadron; there are also 11 officers and 80 men on the regimental and "divisional" staff (three squadrons form a "division"), and two escort detachments of an officer and 43 rank and file each. Thus a cavalry regiment at full strength requires some 1,500 horses. Their arms are the carbine and the cavalry sword. In the Honved cavalry the squadrons are, at peace strength, only one-fourth of their full numbers, and their fifth and sixth squadrons are not intended to take the field with the regiment, but to act as divisional cavalry with the Honved divisions; in other respects they resemble the Hussars of the active army.
There are 14 regiments of corps artillery, having 153 heavy, 28 light, 16 horse, and 12 mountain batteries. Besides these there are 12 battalions of garrison (fortress) artillery, each with 5 active companies and one company cadre. There is no artillery in the Landwehr.
The infantry regiments, of which there are 102, contain 2 active and 3 reserve battalions a piece, besides the depot battalion. The Tyrolese Jaeger (Rifle) Regiment has 7 battalions, and there are 33 other battalions of rifles. Hungary, it may be observed, is the country in which Hussars originated, while Austria first produced the "rifleman." The Landwehr of the Tyrol and Vorarlberg is of a specially local character; it is organised expressly with a view to mountain warfare, and is not intended, as a rule, to be employed outside its own district. With this exception, the Landwehr, both Austrian and Hungarian, while differing in some important details of economy and administration from the active army, must be reckoned as an integral part of the regular military system, its battalions, etc., being intimately associated with their "active" comrades in a manner designed to insure efficient combination when mobilised. The Austrian Landwehr is (since 1889) organised in 22 regiments of from three to five battalions, and named after the chief town in each battalion district.
The battalions are numbered throughout from 1 to 82. The recruits of the Landwehr battalions are, in peace, eight weeks with the "instructional cadres." The Hungarian Landwehr has 92 battalions and 34 "of the second line" intended as reserves, besides 10 Hussar regiments. Most of this is potential rather than actual strength, battalions being represented in peace by cadres of a few men. The infantry weapon is the Mannlicher magazine rifle.
The forces include 10 battalions of Engineers, 5 of Pioneers, 15 divisions of train, and ambulance, provision, and other departmental corps.
Recruiting is conducted on the basis of universal liability commencing at the age of 21, the term of service being three years with the colours, seven in the reserve, and two in the landwehr. Recruits who voluntarily enlist and provide their own equipment may reduce their service with the colours to one year. The various nationalities affect recruiting in certain definite ways; thus, Poland supplies the bulk of the Uhlans, Hungary the Hussars, and the mountain districts the Rifles. There are no corps d'elite corresponding with the "Guards" of other European armies.
Outside the active and Landwehr troops is the organisation of the Landsturm. In this are included all males between the ages of 19 and 42, who are not otherwise serving.
Navy. - All matters connected with the navy are in the hands of the naval department of the Ministry of War.
The present strength is: - 16 armoured battle ships with 165 guns, 28 cruisers, and 56 torpedo boats, with smaller vessels. Total, exclusive of harbour, barrack, and school ships, 130 ships, mounting 348 guns, and having 139,780 indicated horse-power. The largest gun weighs 48 tons, and is of 12-inch calibre. One ram cruiser has a speed of 18-1/2 knots, but, the average of the remainder is only a little over 13 knots. Vessels of the most modern type are now in course of construction.
The personnel of the navy is as follows: - Officers and cadets, 628; doctors, chaplains, etc., 446; men, 7,500. Total, 8,574. The naval arsenal is at Pola.
Art and Music. - Few names of more than local celebrity occur in the annals of painting in the past, but it is no light boast that one of the greatest masters of any age, Albrecht Durer, though born at Nuremberg, was the son of a Hungarian father. In modern times, Hans Makaart in Austria and Munkacsy in Hungary have nobly upheld the reputation of the monarchy.
In music, on the other hand, Austria has long held a foremost position; indeed, Vienna has been called the musical capital of Europe. It is sufficient to recall the names of Haydn and Mozart to justify the title, without referring to the many eminent musicians of more recent date who have lived and worked there.